by AK Team
Hansen’s disease that is commonly also known as leprosy, is a highly contagious and actively spreading bacterial disease majorly affecting the skin, mucous membranes, nerves and also causing discoloration and lumps on the skin usually in severe cases.
The causative agent of this disease, that causes this kind of bacterial disease belongs to the family named Mycobacterium. The exact species of the diseases that causes this kind of bacterial infection is named as Mycobacterium leprae. This bacteria is an acid – fast and intracellular organism.
This kind of bacterial diseases is very common in the countries that are located in the tropical and subtropical regions. In the countries that are located in areas other than the tropical and subtropical regions, this kind of disease is very uncommon or very rare.
Earlier this disease was bound to spread very easily and was spread worldwide, but now due to advancing technology in every field and in medication as well, there are various treatments that are available not only for the treatment but also for the prevention of this kind of bacterial infection. The most common treatment that can also be a preventive measure for this kind of bacterial infection is vaccination. This treatment and preventive measure ( that is vaccination) can be done for individuals of all age groups (especially this vaccination course has to be done in young children that is in infants, those who are less than 1 year of age )
TYPES OF LERPROSY
The type of leprosy or Hansen’s disease basically means that at what location that disease occurs in an individual. The type also indicates the phase of the disease that is how mild or how severe the disease is, that is it helps an individual to know the severity of the disease. There are various types of this type of bacterial disease. Some of the common types of this kind of bacterial infection are listed and described below :
Borderline lepromatous leprosy
- In this kind of bacterial disease is included the borderline lepromatous leprosy
- In this type of bacterial infection the infected person might have dimorphic lesions.
- The patients who are infected by this form of this kind of bacterial disease typically have symmetric lesions that are distributed bilaterally
- Such bilaterally distributed lesions also have widespread small macules, papules and nodules that are of various shapes and sizes.
- Usually these bilateral lesions that are present in this form of this kind of bacterial disease are mostly of lepromatous in nature but they also contain some aspects of tuberculoid lesions.
Borderline tuberculoid leprosy
- In this kind of bacterial disease is included the borderline tuberculoid type of leprosy
- People who are infected by this kind of bacterial disease have an anesthetic discrete plaques that are similar to and usually resemble to the plaques that are present in tuberculoid leprosy.
- The patients usually have many lesions (basically 5 – 10 lesions)
- The lesions that are present in this form of this kind of bacterial disease are very large, are not defined well and they often contain satellite papules.
- Such type often results in neuropathy as several peripheral nerve trunks are asymmetrically enlarged.
- This form of this kind of bacterial disease is marked by a single lesion on the skin and this is the characteristic feature of this kind of disease.
- This form of this kind of disease basically refers to a very early form of this kind of bacterial disease, that is leprosy.
- As this kind of bacterial disease usually consists of a single lesion, it also has a slightly diminished sensation of touch.
- If this form of this type of disease is not treated and diagnosed at correct time then it may lead to various other major forms of leprosy.
- This form of this kind of bacterial infection is the most common form of this kind of bacterial disease
- This form of this kind of bacterial infection ,that is lepromatous leprosy is basically marked and characterized by a pale macule that appears on the surface of skin
- This type of pale macule results from the failure of the Th1 cell activation
- The activation of Th1 cell is very necessary to eradicate the mycobacteria ( the causative agent of this kind of bacterial infection)
- The Th1 cell activation activates the macrophages so that these phagocytic cells can engulf these mycobacterium bacteria)
- This borderline leprosy basically includes three kinds of borderline leprosy types
- The borderline tuberculoid (BT), borderline borderline (BB) and the borderline lepromatous leprosy (BL) are all included in this form of this kind of bacteria disease.
- All the symptoms and types of borderline tuberculoid (BT), borderline borderline (BB) and the borderline lepromatous leprosy (BL) are listed above in this article
- This form of this kind of bacterial infection basically means that the exact leprosy disease is just about to occur
- If this form of this type of bacterial disease is not diagnosed and treated at proper time that it may eventually lead to exact leprosy and various other complications in the body.
- This form of this kind of bacterial infection is the most severe form of leprosy that can occur in an individual who is infected by this kind of bacterial infection
- This form of this kind of bacterial disease is most appropriately marked and characterized by a solitary skin lesion that are basically asymmetrically distributed with few lesions and well demarcated edges.
- In this form of this type of bacterial disease there is also an early and marked damage of a nerve that can eventually cause any type of neurological disorder such as Alzheimer’s disease.
SYMPTOMS OF LEPROSY
There are various symptoms that a person who is infected by this kind of disease experiences. The kind of symptoms that a person experiences entirely depends on the type of infection the person is having. The various signs and symptoms that a person experiences while being infected by this kind if bacterial infection are listed below :
- Discolored patches of skin that are usually flat and may be numb and might look faded as well (lighter than the skin around)
- Growths (nodules) on the skin
- Thick and dry skin
- Painless ulcers on the soles of feet
- Painless swelling or lumps on the face or earlobes
- Loss of eyebrows or eyelashes
- Numbness of affected areas of the skin
- Muscle weakness or paralysis (especially in the hands and feet)
- Enlarged nerves (especially those around the elbow and knee and in the sides of the neck)
- Eye problems that may lead to blindness (when facial nerves are affected)